|1 Jan. 1967
||Kommune I founded in West Berlin. The first commune to come out of the student movement, it represented the anarchist tendancy.|
|6 April 1967||Pudding attack on US Vice President, Hubert Humphrey, in West Berlin.|
|12 May 1967||Kommune expelled from the "Social Democratic Students" (SDS).|
|2 June 1967||A student, Benno Ohnesorg, is shot and killed by the police during a demonstration against a visit by the Shah of Iran to West Berlin.|
|17-18 Feb. 1968||International Vietnam Conference held at Technical University (TU) inWest Berlin.|
|6 March 1968||Firebomb explodes at Moabit Criminal Court in West Berlin.|
|2-3 April 1968||Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin, Thorwald Proll, and Horst Söhnlein firebomb 2 Frankfurt department stores to protest the escalation of the war against Vietnam.|
|11 April 1968||Student leader, Rudi Dutschke shot in the head and gravely injured in West Berlin. Josef Bachmann, a young extreme right worker from Munich was the assailant. The shooting sparked weeks of violent unrest, primarily directed against the "Springer Press", which had targeted Dutschke in their chain of newspapers.|
|28 June 1968||Notstandgesetze (Emergency Laws) enacted.|
|12-16 Sept. 1968||23rd Delegate Conference of SDS in Frankfurt. Steering Committee for Women’s Liberation surfaces publicly.|
|26 Sept. 1968||DKP (West German Communist Party) formed in Frankfurt. This Party is essentially the reformation of the KPD, illegalized in1956, under a new name.|
|19 Dec. 1968||Rectorate of the Free University (FU) firebombed.|
|31 Dec. 1968||KP/ML (Maoist - pro-Albania) founded in Hamburg.|
|27 Feb. 1969||Richard Nixon visits West Berlin
and is met with massive demonstrations and an unsuccessful bombing
attempt against his motorcade. Dieter Kunzelmann and Rainer Langhans,
Kommune I members, are
arrested. The bomb was supplied by Peter Urbach, a Security Police
|1 April 1969||Socialist Bureau founded.|
|15 July 1969||Local government office in Bamberg severely damaged and blank ID cards stolen.|
|Fall 1969||Urban guerilla groups the Tupamaros West Berlin and the Tupamaros Munich formed. Six bombings in West Berlin.|
|16 Dec. 1969||Arrest warrants in connection with West Berlin bombings issued for Bernhard Braun, Michael "Bommi" Baumann and an unidentified Dutchman. All 3 go underground.|
|Dec. 1969||Socialist Patients Collective (SPK), a collective of mental patients, formed in Heidelberg.|
|Feb. 1970||Baader, Ensslin,and Proll,
temporarily out of prison, decide not to go back and go underground.
A group of West Berlin anarchists, including "Bommi" Baumann, Thonas Weisbecker, and Georg von Ranch arrested while beating Horst Rieck, a joarnalist for Quick, who had recently written a scandal-ridden article about the West Berlin New Left and the political bombings. Baumann's held for 1 ½ years. The rest are released shortly after the arrests.
|21 Sept. 1970||SDS disbanded.|
|March 1970||German Communist Party/Reconstruction Organization (pro-Beijing) founded.|
|5 April 1970||Baader arrested in traffic control in West Berlin.|
|5 May 1970||America House in West Berlin firebombed the day after the Army enters Cambodia (Kampuchea) and 4 students shot at Kent State.|
|14 May 1970||Baader broken out of the library of the Institute for Social Research, where he has obtained permission to work with Ulrike Meinhof on a book about juvenile detention centers. An armed group broke into the library and fled with Baader and Meinhof. An Institute employee, Linke, is shot and badly hurt when he tries to intervene. This marks the beginning of the Red Army Faction (RAF).|
|23 May 1970||350 arrested protesting a march of Allied troops in West Berlin.|
|11 June 1970||West Berlin police are armed with hand grenades and machine guns.|
|June 1970||Some members of the RAF go to Jordan and train with Al Fatah (PLO).|
|Aug. 1970||The group returns from Jordan and publicly declares itself the RAF.|
|29 Sept. 1970||3 simultaneous bank robberies mark the RAF's first action. Nets 220,000 DM.|
|8 Oct. 1970||Acting on a tip-off, police raid a West Berlin apartment and arrest RAF members Horst Mahler (previously a Left lawyer and Baader’s lawyer at the time of his breakout), Irene Georgens, Ingrid Schubert, Monika Berberich, and Brigatte Adonsk.|
|5 Nov. 1970||Government passes motion allowing the greater use of electronic surveillance methods.|
|16 Nov. 1970||City Hall in Neustadt broken into, 31 official stimps, 15 passports, and 11 ID cards stolen.|
|21 Nov. 1970||City Hall in Lang-Gons broken into, 166 ID cards, a bottle of cognac, and more than 430 DM stolen.|
|15 Jan. 1971||2 banks in Kassel simultaneously
|28 Jan. 1971||Minister of the Interior,
Hans-Dietrich Genscher, launches a massive search and destroy mission
against the RAF.
|10 Feb. 1971||RAF members Astrid Proll and
Manfred Grashof exchange fire with the police in Frankfurt.
|April 1971||RAF release the Urban Guerilla Concept strategy paper.|
|6 May 1971||RAF member, Astrid Proll, one of the group who liberated Baader (see 14-05-70), arrested.|
|18 May 1971||RAF member, Horst Mahler found
guilty in connection with the liberation of Baader, but held under
129, as a member of a criminal association. Ingrid Schubert sentenced
6 years. Irene Georgens sentenced to 4 years.
|July 1971||German CP/RO becomes CP/ML. (See
|8 July 1971||Weisbecker, Baurrann, and von Rauch tried for beating Quick journalist (see Feb. 1970). Baumann and Weisbecker released on bail. Von Rauch, facing other charges, with a possible 10 year sentence, pretends to be Weisbecker and leaves with Baumann. Weisbecker is later released. All 3 go underground. This marks the beginning of the “2nd of June Movement” (2JM), a West Berlin based anarchist guerilla group.|
|15 July 1971||RAF member Petra Schelm is shot and killed by the police at a Hamburg roadblock. Werner Hoppe is arrested and accused of attempted murder of a cop.|
|20 July 1971|| Dieter Kunzelmann (see 27 Feb.
1968) arrested for allegedly planting a bomb at a lawyer's ball. He is
|24 July 1971||Police attack the SPK (see Dec.
1969) for alleged connections with the RAF.
|21 Oct. 1971||Policeman Norbert Schmid killed in shootout with the RAF. Margrit Schiller arrested and charged with murder.|
|16 Nov. 1971||The BKA (Federal Criminal
sets up the “Baader-Meinhof Special Commission”.
|4 Dec. 1971||During a massive search in West Berlin, following the discovery of a RAF safehouse, 3 2JM members involved in a shootout with the police. Georg von Rauch shot in the head while surrendering unarmed. “Bommi” Baumann and 1 other guerilla escape.|
|5 Dec. 1971||Between five and seven thousand people demonstrate in West Berlin to protest von Rauch's murder.|
|8 Dec. 1971||Vacant nurse's residence in West Berlin occupied and named “Georg von Rauch House”.|
|Dec. 1971||Dieter Kunzelmann sentenced to 9 years for attempted bombing of lawyer's ball (see 20 July 1971).|
|28 Jan. 1972||The Interior Minister’s Conference passes Radikalenerlass (Anti-Radical Act). The most significant measure, the Berufsverbote, bars all people with left histories from working at any level of the Civil Service.|
|2 Feb. 1972||2JM bombs the British Yacht Club and accidentally kills Irwin Beelitz, a 66 year old boat-builder.|
|2 March 1972||Thomas Weisbecker shot and killed by police in Augsburg. RAF member Carmen Roll arrested while trying to flee.|
|3 March 1972||Demontrations in five cities to
protest the murder of Weisbecker.
In Hamburg, police raid a flat, In a shootout with RAF members Manfred Grashof and Wolfgang Grundmann, a cop is fatally wounded and Grashof is seriously injured. Grashof is nonetheless removed from the hospital to a prison cell by Judge Wolfgang Buddenberg, who is in charge of all RAF arrests.
|11 April 1972||Inter-regional Women's Conference in Frankfurt with 400 women from 36 groups.|
|19 April 1972||400 cops raid Georg von Rauch House, looking for 2JM members living there with false IDs. They are not there, but 28 people are taken in for questioning.|
|April 1972||Not-guilty sentence against Horst Mahler in the liberation of Baader quashed in appeal (see 18 May 1971).|
|May 1972||RAF responds to carpet-bombing against Vietnam with a bombing offensive known as the "May Offensive".|
|11 May 1972||Headquarters of the 5th U.S. Corps in Frankfurt bombed by the RAF. One officer killed, thirteen injured.|
|13 May 1972||Police headquarters in Augsburg and Munich bombed by the RAF to avenge Thomas Weisbecker’s death. (See 2 March 1972)|
|14 May 1972||RAF release
communiqué For the Victory of
of Vietnam claiming responsibility for May 11th bombing.
|15 May 1972
||RAF car-bomb against Judge Buddenberg (see 3 March 1972). His wife is injured.|
|16 May 1972||RAF release communiqué claiming
responsibility for May 13th bombing.
|19 May 1972||RAF bombs Springer Skyscraper in Hamburg. In spite of three warnings, the building is not cleared and 17 workers are injured.|
|20 May 1972||RAF release Fight Fascism communiqué justifying May 15th attack on
Judge Buddenberg, and Expropriate
Springer communiqué regarding the May 19th attacks.
|24 May 1972||Headquarters of the U.S. Army in
Europe in Heidelberg bombed by the RAF. Three soldiers killed.
||RAF release communiqué justifying May 24th attack on
U.S. Army base in Heidelberg.
|28 May 1972||RAF issues a Communiqué to the West German
demanding that they print communiqués issued explaining the May
False communiqués issued stating that the RAF will place three random car-bombs in Stuttgart on June 2, the anniverary of the killing of Benno Ohnesorg (see 2 June 1967).
|29 May 1972||RAF issues a communiqué About The Fascist Bomb Threats in Stuttgart distancing itself from the false communiqués.|
|1 June 1972||RAF members Andreas Baader,
Meins and Jan-Carl Raspe arrested in a shootout vrith the police in
Frankfurt. Baader is injured. Three hundred cops and a tank are used to
make the arrests.
|7 June 1972||RAF member Gudrun Ensslin
in a boutique in Hamburg after a shop attendant notices a gun in her
|9 June 1972||RAF member Brigatte Monhaupt and 2JM member Berhard Braun arrested in West Berlin.|
|15 June 1972||RAF member Ulrike Meinhof and supporter, Gerhard Möller arrested in an apartment outside of Hannover. Police were tipped off by “left-wing” trade unionist from the “progressive” wing of the SPD (Social Democratic Party).|
|25 June 1972||British citizen, Ian MacLeod
and killed in his bed by police, who thought he was a RAF member.
|5-6 Sept. 1972||Palestinian group “Black September” executes 11 Israeli athletes at the Olympic Games in Munich.|
|12 Sept. 1972||The Interior Minister's Conference founds special counter-terrorism police unit, the GSG-9.|
|17 Jan. 1973||Forty RAF prisoners begin 4
½ week hungerstrike against isolation.
|March 1973||Squat struggle heats up, with
five thousand people participating in violent struggles.
“Committee Against Torture,” an organization supported by a wide spectrum of the West German intelligentsia, is founded for the express purpose of focusing public attention on the struggle of the RAF prisoners against the destructive prison conditions in Stammheim.
|30 April 1973||Counter-terroriam apparatus
|8 May 1973||Eighty RAF prisoners begin 7 week hungerstrike for association and free access to political information. The State attempts to kill Baader by withdrawing water for eight days.|
||Committee Against Torture (see April 1973) holds a public event at which Heinz Brandt, a member of the board of IG Metall, described the isolation conditions that the prisoners were subjected to as much worse, more dangerous, and more destructive than the conditions he had suffered in four years in a Nazi concentration camp. Dutch psychologist Dr. Sjef Teuns described isolation and sensory deprivation as programmed torture. Sociologist Dr. Christian Sigrist described the West German torture system as part of the worldwide counter-strategy against anti-imperialist combatants.|
Federal Court Judge Knoblich rules that the state could proceed with x-rays and a scintigraphy (neuro-surgery) on Ulrike Meinhof, even against her will, and with the use of constraining devices or anesthesia if necessary. This is based on the Federal Prosecutor Peter Zeis' idea that her revolutionary politics may be the result of some kind of neurological deformity! It was only massive public protest, including the protest of many doctors, which prevented the government from proceeding with its plan.
|16 Nov. 1973|| In retaliation for September
11th Chilean coup, which brough General Augusto Pinochet to power,
Revolutionary Cells (RZ) attack ITT in West Berlin.
|17 Nov. 1973||In retaliation for Chilean coup, RZ attacks ITT in Nurenberg.|
|Jan. 1974||Provincial Interior Minister,
Heinz Schwarz, Chairman of the Interior Minister's Conference, proposes
the formation of West European police force to deal with guerilla
struggle, particularily the
|4 Feb. 1974||Police actions in Hamburg and
Frankfurt against an alleged “RAF information network” ends with arrest
of Helmut Pohl, Ilse Stachowiak, Margrit Schiller, Christa Eckes, and
|15 Feb. 1974||Security apparatus substantially expanded.|
|1 May 1974||RZ firebombs Peter Sötje’s
car. Sötje was responsible for the demolition of the Putte
|9 May 1974||Autonomous women's movement holds festival, attended by 2000, in West Berlin.|
|4 June 1974||Ulrich Schmücker, former 2JM member turned police informer, assassinated.|
|14 June 1974||RZ attacks Chilean General
Consulate in West Berlin.
|Sept. 1974||RZ actions against Korf Machine Industry in Mannheim and El Al office in Frankfurt to protest Israel’s extermination policy against the Palestinians.|
presents a Statement on the Liberation of
Andreas Baader during the
Forty perisoners from the RAF begin their third collective hunger strike against prison conditions.
October the president of the federal Supreme Court, Theodor Prinzig, rules in favour of the force-feeding of hungerstriking RAF prisoners Holger Meins, Jan-Carl Raspe, and Andreas Baader.Force-feeding was not meant to save the lives of the prisoners but as a form of torture. Adelheid Schulz described the effects of force-feeding as "hours of nausea, a racing heartbeat, pain, and effects similar to fever. At times one experiences hot flashes; then one is freezing cold."
||Federal Court filed for seizure of the defense correspondence between defense attorney Kurt Groenewold and the RAF prisoners on the basis that the attorneys were at the core of an illegal RAF information system.|
|9 Nov. 1974||RAF member Holger Meins dies after a 2 month hungerstrike for association. Demonstrations break out all over West Germany.|
|10 Nov. 1974||Günter von Drenkmann, President of West Berlin Supreme Court, is assassinated by 2JM, in retaliation for the death of Meins. A subsequent nationwide sweep uncovers a RAF safehouse, 20 people are arrested.|
|16 Nov. 1974||RZ firebombs the president of
Krone Werke’s BMW during a company meeting in West Berlin.
|26 Nov. 1974||With Aktion Winterreise (Action Winter Trip), the BKA searches more than one hundred houses in 12 cities. Fourteen people were arrested.|
|29 Nov. 1974||RAF member Ulrike Meinhof
sentenced to eight years.
RAF member Horst Mahler sentenced to fourteen years.
|7 Dec. 1974
||A bomb explodes in Breman Central Station. Five people are injured.|
|9 Dec. 1974||The RAF issues a
distancing themselves from the Breman bombing.
||Federal Prosecutor Siegfried Bubak filed for seizure of the defense correspondence between RAF prisoners and defense attorneys Klaus Croissant and Christian Ströbele.|
||Second Senate Judge Theodor
Prinzig ruled that
defense attorney Klaus Croissant was acting as “supporter” and
“mouthpiece” for the RAF prisoners and, as
such, for a “criminal association.”
Defense attorney Christian Ströbele was also alleged to be a
“member” of a “criminal association”
for referring to himself as a “socialist and a political lawyer” and
expressing “solidarity with the thinking of the [RAF] prisoners” whom
he referred to
|5 Feb. 1975||RAF prisoners begin hungerstrike.
|23 Feb. 1975||Twenty thousand people occupy a nuclear reactor construction site in Whyl.|
|27 Feb. 1975||Peter Lorenz, CDU candidate for
West Berlin, kidnapped by 2JM. They demand release of six imprisoned
guerillas: Rolf Pohl, Rolf Heissler, Gabriele Kröcher-Tiedemann,
Verena Becker, Ina Siepmann, and Horst Mahler.
|3 March 1975||Pohl, Heissler, Becker, and
Siepmann flown to Frankfurt with former West Berlin Mayor, Heinrich
Albertz as hostage. Kröcher-Tiedemann decides to join them later
in the day. Mahler declines.
RZ bombs the Oratory in Bamberg to protest the role of the church in the oppression of women.
|4 March 1975||Lorenz released unharmed.
Women of the RZ bomb the Federal Court to protest the law illegalising abortions.
||Defense attorney Klaus Croissant is excluded from representing Baader.|
|20 March 1975||RAF members Petra Krause and
Elisabeth van Dyck and three Swiss citizens arrested in Zurich,
|11 April 1975||Interior Minister's Conference further centralizes the BKA and forms Abteilung T (Section T), as a special anti-terrorist unit.|
|24 April 1975||RAF “Commando Holger Meins”, all former SPK members (see Dec. 1969 and 24 July 1971), occupy the West German Embassy in Stockholm, Sweden and demand the release of 26 political prisoners (see communiqué here). The West German government refuses to negociate and the guerillas execute the Military and Economic Attaches. Police storm the building, detonating explosives, explosives the guerilla had laid. Ulrich Wessel is killed, Siegfried Hausner is fatally insured, five other guerillas are injured.|
|29 April 1975||RZ attacks the Headquarters of the Immigration Police in West Berlin to commemorate International Workers' Day (May 1st)|
|30 April 1975||RZ bombs Provincial Government buildings in Mainz and Ludwigshafen to commemorate International Workers' Day. Four suspects in Lorenz kidnapping arrested, including Ronald Fritzsch, Gerald Klöpper, Hendrick Reinders, and Paul Reverann.|
|4 May 1975||RAF member Siegfried Hausner (see 24 April 1975) dies in Stammheim Prison in Stuttgart.|
||Defense attorney Groenewold is excluded as Baader’s lawyer on the basis of allegations that his office served as an “information central” to allow prisoners to communicate amongst themselves.|
||Defense attorney Christian Ströbele was excluded as Baader’s lawyer, due to his alleged role in running an "information central" for the RAF.|
|17 May 1975||Elisabeth van Dyck and Petra Krause extradited from Switzerland to West Germany (see 20 March 1975).|
|21 May 1975||Trial of RAF members Ulrike Meinhof, Gudrun Ensslin, Jan-Carl Raspe and Andreas Baader begins in Stammheim.|
|23 May 1975||Federal Interior Minister, Werner Maihofer clairos there are two to three hundred terrorist sympathizers, with a hardcore of about thirty.|
|30 May 1975||Sigurd Debus, Wolfgang Stahl, Gerd Wieland, and Karl-Heinz Ludwig sentenced to between 5 ½ and 12 years in connection with a bank robbery to finance guerilla activities.|
|4 June 1975||The European Commission of Human Rights declares that RAF prisoners have been held in unacceptable conditions since 1972.|
|6 June 1975||2JM member, Till Meyer shot and arrested.|
|12 June 1975||Parliament begins to debate new “Anti-Terrorism Laws”.|
|13 June 1975||Left-wing attorney Kurt Groenwald disbarred.|
presents Statement to Stammheim Trial.
|23 June 1975||Defense attorneys for the RAF in Hamburg, Heidelberg, Stuttgart, and West Berlin have their offices and homes searched. Christian Ströbele and Klaus Croissant arrested.|
|26 June 1975||The Interior Ministers
gives police the right to shoot to kill when dealing with suspected
terrorists. By the end of 1975 at least sixty four people had been
|29 June 1975||RAF member Kathrina
Hammerschmidtd dies of cancer in a West Berlin hospital, having been
denied adequate treatment until it was too late.
|18 July 1975||RZ prints 100,000 false bus and tram tickets and distributes them in mailboxes in West Berlin. Only 3000 are voluntarily returned.|
|July 1975||2JM carries out a series of bank
robberies in West Berlin.
||Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin, Jan-Carl Raspe and Ulrike Meinhof's present a joint Statement Regarding Their Identity at the Stammheim Trial.|
|31 Aug. 1975||The European Commission for Human Rights declares prisoners of the RAF to be political prisoners.|
|Sept. 1975||The first issue of the feminist journal Courage comes out.|
|2 Sept. 1975||Trial of RAF members, Manfred Grashof, Wolfgang Grundmann, and Klaus Junschke begins in Kaiserlautern under heavy security.|
|9 Sept. 1975||2JM members, Inge Viett,
Plambeck, and Ralf Reinders arrested. All three are suspects in the
kidnapping (see 27 Feb. 1972).
|13 Sept. 1975||Bomb explosion in Hamburg
Central Station injures eleven. An anonymous caller claims it in the
name of the RAF
“Commando Ralf Reinders”. The RAF, 2JM, and RZ disclaim it in a common
accompanying a false bomb in Munich Central Station.
|19 Sept. 1975||A mathematician, whose ID papers 2JM member Fritz Teufel had when arrested, is arrested for “supporting a criminal association.”|
|6 Oct. 1975||A 3 ½ kilo bomb is discovered in the Nurenberg Central Station. It is claimed by the "Southern Fighting Group of the RAF". The guerilla groups again distance themselves.|
|23 Oct. 1975||West German and French authroities meet to discuss collaborating in the "war against terrorism".|
|12 Nov. 1975||A bomb explodes in the Cologne Central Station. The RZ distance themselves.|
|21 Dec. 1975||An OPEC Conference in Vienna, Austria is raided by a mixed Palestinian/West German Commando, who take the oil Ministers hostage and fly to Algeria, where all go free. One guerilla, RZ member Hans Joachim Klein is severely injured in an exchange of fire in the OPEC office, which leaves three dead.|
||There were 2,956 demonstrations in 1976, the greatest number ever held in one year in West Germany.|
|Jan. 1976||The West German parliament
passes a censorship law, under which writing, producing, publishing,
distributing, advertising, selling, or displaying materials “glorifying
acts of violence” is a criminal offense, subject to a maximum three
year jail sentence.
|13 Jan. 1976||The trial of alleged RAF members Margrit Schiller, Wolfgang Beer, Helmut Pohl, Becker, Blenck and Allnach begins. Allnach’s trial is severed form the rest.|
|6 Feb. 1976||The trial of 2JM members, Annette von Wedel, Ilse Jandt, Sönke Löffler, Wolfgang Strücken, and Wolfgang Wesslau, in the Schmücker case (see 4 June 1974) Former comrade, Jürgen Bodeaux serves as a witness for the State.|
|4 March 1976||Trial begins against 10
“supporters”, whose ID papers have been found in possession of 2JM
|16 March 1976||RAF member turned State witness Gerhard Müller sentenced to 10 years. RAF member Irmgard Möller sentenced to to 4 ½ years.|
|17 March 1976||Pirate radio Unfreies West
Berlin (Unfree West Berlin) goes on the air.
|27 March 1976||2JM member Andreas Vogel arrested in West Berlin.|
||Andreas Baader and
Ulrike Meinhof make joint Intervention
in Trial of Commando Holger Meins.
|4 May 1976||In a common statement, RAF
prisoners claim responsibility for the RAF’s May 1972 Offensive and
demand POW status under the Geneva Convention.
|6 May 1976||The trial of the members of the
“Commando Holger Meins”, Hanna Elise Krabbe, Lutz Manfred Taufer,
Dellwo, Bernhard Maria Rössner (see 25 May 1976) begins.
|9 May 1976||RAF member Ulrike Meinhof raped and murdered in prison. The State claims it is a suicide.|
|10 May 1976||Militants protest with molotov cocktails in Frankfurt to protest the murder of Meinhof. Three day protest hungerstrike of politcal and social prisoners in Berlin-Tegel Prison. Two bombings against West German firms in Paris.|
|11 May 1976||RAF
prisoner Jan-Carl Raspe issues statement,
on behalf of
RAF prisoners, regarding the murder of Meinhof.
Meinhof's last letters, two to fellow-prisoner Hanna Krabbe and one to the Hamburg prisoners, as well as a Fragment Regarding Structure which she wanted to have presented at stammheim trial, are released by RAF prisoners in order to expose as lies the State's claims regarding "contradictions" between the prisoners.
|14-16 May 1976||Thirty six women hungerstrike in
Hessen prison against isolation and other torturous prison conditions.
|15 May 1976||Meinhof buried. Bomb attacks in
Hamm (RZ),West Germany; Rome, Italy: and Zurich, Switzerland.
|18 May 1976||Eight thousand demonstrate in
Berlin against murder of Meinhof. Many brutal arrests.
|19 May 1976||497 students arrested in Munich during illegal student meeting.|
|20 May 1976||Prisoners in Cologne-Ossendorf
hungerstrike against prison conditions.
|23 May 1976||1500 people demonstrate against
an nuclear power plant in Biblis.
|2 June 1976||RZ "Commando Ulrike Meinhof"
Headquarters of U.S. Army and U.S. Officers' club.
"Friends of the 2nd of June" firebomb two fully loaded military trucks at the U.S. Airforce Base in Frankfurt.
|3 June 1976||Failed bomb attack against Judge
of Hamburg court for attacks against RAF prisoner, Werner Hoppe.
|5-7 June 1976||Socialist Bureau organizes
Anti-Repression Congress in Frankfurt. Twenty thousand take part.
Lawyer Klaus Croissant presents.
|14 June 1976||Twenty four lawyers for
prisoners release a statement protesting the murder of Ulrike Meinhof,
|16 June 1976||Five ex-intelligence
agents, including Winslow Peck (National Security Agency - Airforce),
Gary P. Thomas (Military Intelligence), Philip Agee (CIA), testify in
Stammheim about the use of West German territory by the US for
the Vietnamese War effort.
|18 June 1976||The office of Klaus Jürgen Langner, Margrit Schiller's lawyer, firebombed. Seven people are injured.|
|22 June 1976||In the Schmücker trial (see 4 June 1976), Ilse Jandt sentenced to life, Wolfgang Wesslau sentenced to 8 years, Zuchthaus, Strüken, and Bodeaux to 5 years, Löffler and von Wedel to 4 years.|
|27 June 1976||A Palestinian Commando (PFLP), including 2 West Germans (former RZ) hijack an Air France airliner, going from Tel Aviv, Isreal to Paris, France, and take it to Entebbe, Uganda, demanding the release of 53 political prisoners in Isreal, West Germany, France, Switzerland, and Kenya.|
|29 June 1976||Kontaktsperre (complete deprivation of all forms of outside contact, including lawyers) enacted against West German prisoners, whose freedom is demanded by the Entebbe hijackers.|
|30 June 1976||Lawyer Klaus Croissant forbidden from doing any more political cases.|
|4 July 1976|| Israeli counter-insurgency
troops storm the airliner in Entebbe, killing 7 guerillas and 80
||Interview with the
RAF is published in Le
|7 July 1976||RAF member Monika Berberich and 2JM members, Julianne Plambeck, Gabriele Rollnick, and Inge Viett overpower a guard and scale the wall, escaping from the Lehrter Women's Prison in West Berlin.|
|12 July 1976||Trial of Eberhard Dreher,
with supporting the 2JM, begins.
|16 July 1976||Lawyer Klaus Croissant arrested
and charged with "supporting a criminal association” (RAF).
|21 July 1976||Rolf Pohle, one of the prisoners
exchanged for Lorenz (see 27 Feb. 1975), is arrested in Athens, Greece.
RAF member Monika Berberich rearrested (see 7 July 1976 ).
||Brigitte Mohnhaupt presents Statement Regarding Structure of the RAF from Stammheim, in order to counter claims of State witness Gerhard Müller.|
||Helmut Pohl presents Statement Regarding Structure of the RAF from Stammheim, in order to counter claims of State witness Gerhard Müller.|
|7 Aug. 1976||Tunisia turns Dieter Himmelsbach, who was accused of RAF membership in 1974, over to West Germany. His arrest was the result of an INTERPOL investigation.|
|18-19 Aug. 1976||Left bookstores and publishers
in West Berlin, Hamburg, Bochum, Essen, Cologne, Heidelberg, Tubingen,
Munich raided under pretext of "supporting a criminal association".
are seized and a Bochum book dealer is arrested.
|26 Aug. 1976||Bochum book dealer is released.
Writers' Union Conference held in Stuttgart demands an International Investigatory Commission into the death of Ulrike Meinhof (see 9 May 1976).
|Sept. 1976||First issue of feminist magazine Courage issued.|
|2 Sept. 1976||A coalition of left groups calls for an International Russel Committee to investigate repression in West Germany.|
|28 Sept. 1976||In Hamburg, Christa Eckes, sentenced to 7 years, Helmut Pohl to 5 years, Margrit Schiller to 4s years and 8 months, Eberhard Becker, Ilse Stachowiak and Wolfgang Beer to 4 ½ years, and Kay-Uwe Allnach to 2 years (see 3 March 1972).|
|1 Oct. 1976||In spite of protests, Greece extradites Rolf Pohle to West Germany (see 21 July 1976).|
|7 Oct. 1976||RAF prisoners, Gudrun Ensslin, Jan-Carl Raspe, and Andreas Baader, receive life sentences.|
|4-5 Nov. 1976||Christa Eckes, Ilse Stachoviak,
and Irmgard Möller transferred to dead-wing in Lübeck prison,
there they join Annerose Reiche and Brigitte Asdonsk.
|10 Nov. 1976||Ministers from 19 EEC countries partake in a "Convention Against Terrorism".|
|13 Nov. 1976||Anti-nuclear demonstration of
30,000 against a nuclear power plant in Brokdorf.
|1 Dec. 1976||22,000 demonstrate against
"anti-radical act" (see 28 Jan. 1972) in West Berlin.
Lawyers, Siegfried Haag and Roland Mayor arrested on the Frankfurt-Kassel Autobahn. Haag had been forced underground when he was accused in the international press of being the leader of the RAF outside of prison and of masterminding the "Commando Holger Meins" action (see 24 April 1975). Chief Federal Prosecutor, Siegfried Buback, claims that Haag and Mayer were in possession of a variety of weapons at the time of the arrest. Klaus Croissant is denied the right to represent Haag.
|8 Dec. 1976||Lawyer Brigitte Tilgener is denied the right to represent Haag.|
|10 Dec. 1976||The Federal Prosecutors Office
accuses lawyer, Hans-Christian Ströbele of "supporting a criminal
association" and applies for a Berufsverbot
against him (see 28 Jan.
|13 Dec. 1976||Lawyers Klaus Croissant and
Hans-Christian Ströbele denied the right to represent RAF prisoner
|14 Dec. 1976||RAF member Waltraut Boock arrested in Vienna, Austria, following a bank robbery.|
|15 Dec. 1976||One of Klaus Croissant's secretaries offered several thousand DM by the Verfassungsschutz (security police) for copies of legal notes and clients names.|
|17 Dec. 1976||Bomb attack against the Vienna, Austria police information center demanding the release of RAF member, Waltraut Boock (see 14 Dec. 1976). This was followed by 2 bomb threats with the same demand.|
|21 Dec. 1976||Chief Federal Prosecutor, Siegfried Buback requests that lawyer Jürgen Laubacher not be allowed to represent Siegfried Haag, because he has previously represented political prisoners (see 1 Dec. 1976).|
|28 Dec. 1976||The State claims that hash has been found in the cells of RAF prisoners, necessitating closer surveillance of lawyer’s visits.|
|Dec. 1976/Jan. 1977||12,000 students strike in West Berlin against the "anti-radical act” (S3e28-01-72)|
|Dec. 1976/Jan. 1977||12,000 students strike in West Berlin against the "anti-radical act” (S3e28-01-72)|
|Jan. 1977||First issue of feminist journal Emma comes out.|
|5 Jan. 1977||RZ firebombs cinemas all over West Germany, showing Unternehmen Entebbe (90 Minutes at Entebbe), a film celebrating the victory of an Israeli anti-terrorist unit over a PFLP Commando (see 27 June 1976 and 4 July 1976). At the same time they claim credit for the firebombing of Frankfurt Office of Security, the department policing trams and busses for passengers who haven't paid their fare. They also printed tips about how to print phony tickets.|
|5-6 Jan. 1977||Following a shootout at the Swiss-German border, in which a Swiss border guard is shot, Swiss, West German, and Austrian police collaborate in a search for RAF members Günter Sonnenberg and Christian Klar.|
|7 Jan. 1977||A bomb placed in the Lörach train station is blamed on the RAF.|
|11 Jan. 1977||Abu Daoud, suspected of having organized the Black September action at the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich (see 5-6 Sept. 1972) arrested in Paris.|
|12 Jan. 1977||Over protests from West Germany,
Isreal, and the USA, Abu Daoud is released and sent to Algeria.
Defense attorney Otto Schily launches a motion of non-confidence against Theodor Prinzing, the judge in the Stammheim trial, when it is discovered that he has played the trial tapes for Welt Chief Editor, Kremp, in spite of the fact that it is illegal to make them public.
The RZ claims responsibility for the December 1976 bombing of the gasoline resevoirs of the U.S. military in Giessen and burning of Officers’ Casino of the Rhein-Main Air Base in Frankfurt to the ground.
|15 Jan. 1977
||In the early hours of the morning, Gerd Albartus is arrested in Cologne and Enno Borstelmann in Bochum. Both are charged with the attack against the Aachen cinema showing "90 Minutes at Entebbe" (see 5 Jan. 1977).|
|19 Jan. 1977||Albartus and Borstelmann are charged with membership in the RZ.|
|27 Jan. 1977||Trial of Waltraut Siepert and
Tina Doemland for "supporting a criminal association" (2JM) begins in
European"Anti-Terror Convention" in Strassburg.
|2 Feb. 1977||Lawyers Dethloff and Elfferding denied the right to represent 2JM members Till Meyer, IngeViett, and Gabi Rollnick, on a request from the Federal Prosecutor’s Office, based on the fact that they have previously represented political prisoners.|
|4 Feb. 1977||In Vienna, RAF member Waltraut
Boock sentenced to fifteen years in high-security (see 14 Dec. 1976).
|6 Feb. 1977||16,000 demonstrate against "anti-radical act" (see 28 Jan. 1972) in Düsseldorf and Frankfurt.|
|9 Feb. 1977||In West Berlin, the offices of lawyers Efferding and Lieder, both representatives of 2JM members, are raided.|
|16 Feb. 1977||Offices and homes of Efferding,
Lieder, and their employees raided.
|Feb. 1977||State begins photocopying ID papers of visitors to trials of suspected guerillas.|
|18-19 Feb. 1977||Between forty and fifty thousand protest against a proposed nuclear reactor in Brokdorf.|
|1 March 1977||1,500 women demonstrate in West Berlin against rape and other violence against women.|
|2 March 1977||West Berlin pirate radio station
"Unfree Berlin" does its first Turkish laguage broadcast.
|3 March 1977||Police clear 2 squats in Frankfurt.|
|6 March 1977||Anti-nuclear demonstration in
Whyl draws 10,000.
|12 March 1977||In Lübeck, police teargas anti-nuclear street theatre and make many arrests.|
|17 March 1977||State admits to bugging private conversations between RAF prisoners and their lawyers.|
|22 March 1977||Power pylon for energy from
Fessenheims to Paris destroyed.
A committee to fight the "anti-radical laws" is formed in Frankfurt.
|29 March 1977||RAF and 2JM prisoners begin fourth hungerstrike, demanding POW status, association in groups of no less than 15, abolition of isolation, and international investigation into the deaths of Holger Meins, Siegfried Hausner, and Ulrike Meinhof, an end to psychological warfare through false actions and communiqués. Thirty five prisoners participate, including Waltraut Boock and Werner Schlegel in Vienna. Soon 100 prisoners are hungerstriking against brutality and force-feeding.|
|30 March 1977||A power pylon is destroyed.|
|1 April 1977||2JM members Norbert Kröcher, Manfred Adomeit, and approximately 30 other people are arrested in Stockholm, Sweden. Kröcher and Adomeit are extradited to West Germany. Kröcher is a suspect in the Lorenz kidnapping (see 27 Feb. 1975 ).|
|2 April 1977||Relatives of political prisoners begin a support hungerstrike.|
|5 April 1977||Senate approves force feeding in Stammheim.|
|7 April 1977||Chief Federal Prosecutor
Siegfried Buback, his driver, and a bodyguard are executed by RAF
members armed with machineguns and driving motorcycles. The RAF issues a
statement justifying the Attack on
Five RAF prisoners begin to thirst strike.
|10-11 April 1977||Between ten and twelve thousand take part in Easter anti-nuclear demonstrations.|
|14 April 1977||Head of Internal Security, Horst Herold claims that there are between four and five hundred terrorists with four to five thousand sympathisers.|
|17 April 1977||Peter's Church in Frankfurt occupied and turned into a hungestrike information center. Eight people start a solidarity hungerstrike in Bielefeld Church. One hundred and twenty prisoners are now on hungerstrike.|
|20 April 1977||A false issue of Bild-Zeitung,
West Gcrmany’s most popular daily tabloid, is printed with information
Albartus and Borstelmann (see 15 Jan. 1977), Stammheim prison and
Nine hunger-striking prisoners in Hamburg were forcefully searched and then force-fed.
|22 April 1977||2JM members Ingrid Barabas and Christian Möller arrested in Wetzlar.|
|25 April 1977||Göttinger student newspaper prints a letter celebrating Buback's assassination (see 7 April 1977). The "Buback Obituary" is signed Mecalaro and triggers a debate, known as the Mecalaro affair.|
|26 April 1977||Lawyers Otto Schily and Hans-Heinss Heldmann temporarily halt their pleas in the Stammheim trial to protest the bugging of their meetings with witnesses.|
|27 April 1977||Relatives of political prisoners demonstrate at the Headquarters of the United Nations Organization in Geneva, demanding the application of the Geneva Conventions.|
|28 April 1977||Gudrun Ensslin, Jan-Carl Raspe,
and Andreas Baader sentenced to life plus 15 years.
Amnesty International sends a letter to the West German government supporting the RAF prisoners under the United Nations guidelines prohibiting torture. In so doing they added their voice to those of eighty theologists, one hundred and twenty-eight U.S. lawyers, one hundred French and Belgian judges and lawyers, and twenty-three English lawyers.
|29 April 1977||The feminist guerilla group
Rote Zora attacks the Bundesärztekammer
Association) to protest the anti-abortion law.
|30 April 1977||The Minister of Justice for Baden-Wurttemburg rules that the RAF prisoners’ demands for association be met. In response to these gestures the prisoners ended their hunger strike. Shortly thereafter work began on the seventh floor of Stammheim to allow the association of sixteen prisoners.|
|30 April – 1 May 1977||First Walpurgisnacht women's demonstration under the slogan “Women Take Back the Night”.|
|May 1977||Both Spiegeland the left
journal Planderstrand print a
letter from former RZ member
Klein who participated in the OPEC raid (see 21 Dec. 1975), distancing
from armed struggle. He also sent his revolver and ammunition to Spiegel.
|2 May 1977||The weekly news journal Spiegel prints poll results claiming 50% of West German citizens want the reinstatement of the dead-wing in prisons. Thirty five thousand people sign a petition to this effect.|
|3 May 1977|| RAF members Günter
and Verena Becker arrested in Singen. Sonnenberg is shot in the head
Becker in the leg. Sonnenberg is suspected in the Buback assassination
7 April 1977) and Becker in the Lorenz kidnapping (see 27 Feb. 1975).
|5 May 1977||Alleged RAF members Uwe Folkerts and Johannes Thimme arrested in connection with the Buback assassination (see 7 April 1977).|
|7-8 May 1977||A conference against repression in West Germany is held in London.|
|14 May 1977||Anti-nuclear demonstration of 6,000 in Stuttgart.|
|17 May 1977||Waltraut Siepert sentenced 4 ½ years for "supporting a criminal association" (the 2JM). Christian Doemland receives a one year sentence on the same charge.|
|2 June 1977||RAF members, Manfred Grashof and
Klaus Junschke sentenced to life. Ingrid Barabas and Christian
Möller are released
due to lack of evidence (see 22 April 1977).
RAF members Verena Becker and Sabine Schmiz start hungerstrike for association with Ensslin, Raspe, and Baader.
|mid-June 1977||Kurt Rebmann replaces Siegfried Buback (see 7 April 1977).|
|13 June 1977||Verena Becker force-fed (2 June 1977).|
|22 June 1977||RAF prisoners Hanna Krabbe,
Bernhard Rössner, Karl-Heinz Dellwo, and Lutz Taufer begin
hungerstrike for association with prisoners in Stammheim.
RAF members Sabine Schmitz and Verena Becker break their hungerstrike when they are assured that they will be allowed association with other RAF prisoners. The lawyers Armin Newerla and Arndt Müller charged with attempted murder on the grounds that they did not discourage their clients from hungerstriking.
|28 June 1977||RZ bombs the Transit System Security Office in West Berlin, in response to a 23% fare increase.|
|7 July 1977||RAF prisoner Ali Jansen begins
Defense attorney Klaus Croissant, facing increasing levels of repression, flees to Paris, requesting political asylum at a press conference.
|12 July 1977||Trial of 2JM member Eberhard Dreher begins in West Berlin. Lawyer Klaus Croissant requests political refugee status in France.|
|16 July 1977||West Germany requests that
extradite Klaus Croissant.
|26 July 1977||2JM members Ralf Reinders, Ronald Fritzch, Gerald Klöpper, Till Meyer, Fritz Teufel, and Andreas Vogel charged with shooting Drenkmann (see 10 Nov. 1974). Escaped members Julianne Plambeck, Inge Viett, and Gabriele Rollnick are also charged (see 7 July 1976).|
|27 July 1977||RAF prisoner Waltraut Boock begins hungerstrike for application of the Geneva Convention and for association with RAF prisoners in Stammheim.|
|30 July 1977||Jürgen Ponto, the President of West Germany's largest bank, the Dresdner Bank, is shot and killed in his home. The RAF claims responsibility. Ponto’s god-daughter Susanne Albrecht is recognized. Charged with her are Angelika Speitel, Silke Maier-Witt, and Siegrid Sternebeck. All four go underground.|
||RAF prisoners renewed their hunger strike in response to the attack on Ponto. Some of the prisoners escalated to a thirst strike almost immediately.|
|12 Aug. 1977||RAF member Elisabeth van Dyck
named as a suspect in connection with the Ponto assassination.
The State began force-feeding those RAF prisoners who were thirst striking. Defense attorneys Ardnt Müller and Armin Newerla began organizing a critical public response.
|13 Aug. 1977||Berufsverbot requested against lawyer Kurt Groenwald.|
||Susanne Albrecht, god-daughter of Ponto, and member of the RAF commando which assassiated him on July 30th, issue a Statement Regarding the Execution of Ponto in which they state that "it is not clear to us why these people, who start wars in the Third World and destroy entire populations, are dumbfounded when violence faces them in their own house."|
||Defense attorneys Müller and Newerla’s office (previously Klaus Croissant’s office, which they had taken over) is destroyed in a bomb attack. The BKA claimed the attack had been carried out by the RAF, but, as Müller and Newerla pointed out, it was certainly a police action as the police had the office under 24 hour a day surveillance.|
|20 Aug. 1977||Lawyer Armin Newerla arrested with six other people.|
|22 Aug. 1977||Newerla and six others released,
but charges of "supporting a criminal association" are laid
against Neverla and one other person.
|23 Aug. 1977||Anti-nuclear encampment in Grolinde cleared by 1300 cops.|
|24 Aug. 1977||RZ bombs MAN factory in Nurenberg, for its part in helping South Africa constuct the atomic bomb.|
|25 Aug. 1977||Failed bomb attack against the Federal Prosecutors Office in Karlsruhe.|
|30 Aug. 1977||Lawyer Armin Newerla re-arrested and his office searched.|
|2 Sept. 1977||Following the breakdown of negociations between Amnesty International and the Federal Government, the prisoners break off their hunger- and thirst-strike. In a short statement Jan-Carl Raspe said the attacks on Ponto and the BAW had created an environment in which the state held the prisoners as hostages and were ready and willing to kill them to set an example. He also noted the support of Amnesty International for the prisoners’ demands as a positive breakthrough|
|3 Sept. 1977|| Bomb attack on the Provincial
Prosecutors Office in Flensburger.
RAF issues a communiqué regarding the August 25th Attack on Federal Prosecutors Office in Karlsruhe.
|5 Sept. 1977||German's top Industrialist, and former SS officer, Hanns-Martin Schleyer kidnapped from limousine in Cologne, by RAF "Commndo Siegfried Hausner". His chauffeur and three bodygaurds are killed.|
|6 Sept. 1977||A
Weisbaben theologian finds the
2nd communiqué from the “Commando Siegfried Hausner” (the
never acknowledged) in his mailbox, demanding the release of eleven
political prisoners in exchange for Schleyer.
A total Kontaktsperre (communication ban) is instituted against all political prisoners. The Kontaktsperre law deprived the prisoners of all contact with each other as well as with the outside. All visits, including those of lawyers and family members, were forbidden. The prisoners were also denied all access to mail, newspapers, magazines, television, and radio. In short, the prisoners were placed in 100% individual isolation.
|8 Sept. 1977||The BKA poses questions over the
radio which only Schleyer can answer.
A priest in Mainz finds a message from “Commando Siegfried Hausner”, 2 letters from Schleyer, and a video of Schleyer.
A bishop in Mainz receives a letter from Schleyer answering the BKA's questions.
|9 Sept. 1977||AFP News Agency in Bonn receives
a message from "Commando Siegfried Hausner" demanding the
transportation of the prisoners to the Frankfurt Airport.
Schleyer sends a message to his friend, Eberhard von Brauschitisch, requesting that the State meet the kidnappers' demands so as to save his life.
|10 Sept. 1977||Von Brauschitisch, in the name
of the Freundekreis Hanns-Martin
Schleyer (Circle of Friends of
Hanns-Martin Schleyer), enters in contact with Geneva-based lawyer
Denis Payot, hoping to negociate Schleyer’s safe release.
Payot receives a phone call from the kidnappers demanding that by 6pm the following evening, the prisoners clarify flight preparations on TV.
|11 Sept. 1977||The BKA agrees to fly prisoners out of the country once their destination is clear.|
|12 Sept. 1977||Bild
(a daily tabloid) prints
an appeal from Schleyer's wife to the Federal Government, requesting
that they comply with the kidnappers' demands.
The kidnappers leave two messages for von Brauschitisch in two different Düsseldorf hotels. One letter sets a deadline of midnight for the State to meet the demands, the other is a tape from Schleyer to CDU (Christian Democratic Party) Chief Helmut Kohl, asking that he work to see that the demands are met. The BKA received a letter by Schleyer from his son Eberhard, requesting that the demands be met.
|13 Sept. 1977||Lawyer, Payot receives a final
angry ultimatum from the kidnappers, setting the deadline for midnight
At the funeral of Schleyer's driver in Cologne, North Rhein-Westfälen Prime Minister Heinz Kühn delivers a speech warning the kidnappers that Schleyer’s death will have reprecussions for the prisoners.
|14 Sept. 1977||Secretary of State
Hans-Jürgen Wischnewski flies to Algeria and Libya to negociate
their accepting the prisoners.
AFP New Agency in Bonn receives a video of Schleyer requesting that the demands be met.
|16 Sept. 1977||The BKA demands proof that
Schleyer is alive.
Government Speaker Klaus Bölling sends a letter to the press demanding silence on the kidnapping.
|17 Sept. 1977||Kidnappers send proof that
Schleyer is a live.
Wischnewski flies to Yemen and Iraq.
|20 Sept. 1977||For the third time, the BKA demands proof that Schleyer is alive.|
|21 Sept. 1977||Cabinet request a Kontaktsperre (cutting of all contact, including lawyers) against prisoners.|
|22 Sept. 1977||A French Ambassador confers with
Interior Minister Werner Maihofer and Chancellor Helmut Schmidt,
one of the kidnappers’ messages to Payot came from France. Maihofer
that France carry out a search.
RAF member Knut Folkerts, a suspect in the Buback assassination (see 7 April 1977), is arrested with a large sum of money and a false passport in Utrecht, following a shoot-out.
|23 Sept. 1977||The Federal Court grants a Kontaktsperre against
|24 Sept. 1977||The kidnappers send proof that Schleyer is alive.|
|25 Sept. 1977||Wischnewski flies toVietnam.|
|28 Sept. 1977||The kidnappers send Payot proof that Schleyer is still alive.|
|29 Sept. 1977||Parliament votes 371 to 4, with
17 abstentions, for the application of Kontaktsperre.
The editors of Arbeiterstimme (Workers’ Voice), the newspaper of the KBW, are sentenced to six months for publishing an anonymous article entitled "Buback Shot - Enough Reasons, But What’s The Purpose" (see 1 April 1977).
|30 Sept. 1977||The BKA., through Payot, states
that all of the countries visited by Wischnewski declined to accept the
Kontaktsperre passes into law.
A representative from the West German Federal Prosecutors Office flies to Paris with information “proving” defense attorney and political exile Klaus Croissant’s role in the RAF. Croissant is arrested.
|1 Oct. 1977||The kidnappers inform Payot that
they will not prove that Schleyer is alive again, because none of their
demands have been met.
Lawyer Ardnt Müller arrested.
|2 Oct. 1977|| The BKA demands that the
kidnappers prove that Schleyer is still alive and name a country for
the prisoners to be flown to.
Volker Speitel and Rosemarie Preiss, workers in Klaus Croissant's office, arrested.
|8 Oct. 1977||Payot informs the BKA that
Schleyer's wife has received proof that Schleyer is still alive.
A demonstration in Bonn to protest the State's threat to illegalize the Left organizations, the KBW the KPD, and the KPD/ML.
|13 Oct. 1977||Four Palestinian guerillas, the
"Commando Martyr Halimeh" of the Struggle Against World Imperialism
Organization, hijack a Lufthansa airliner enroute from
Majorca to Paris, taking it first to Rome, then to Cyprus. They issue an initial communiqué, and an ultimatum. The
GSG-9 (anti-terrorist unit)
leaves Cologne for Cyprus.
Lawyer Christian Ströbele's home and office raided.
|14 Oct. 1977||Payot receives a communiqué from the "Commando Martyr Halimeh" demanding the release of the eleven prisoners demanded by the "Commando Siegfried Hausner", as well as the release of two Palestinians held in Turkey, and fifteen million US dollars, to be delivered by Eberhard Schleyer. They fly first to Bahrain, then to Dubai. Wischnewski and the GSG-9 fly to Dubai.|
|15 Oct. 1977||Payot delivers proof that Schleyer is still alive to the BKA.|
|16 Oct. 1977||The Airliner leaves Dubai and
flies to Aden, where the pilot is shot.
Wischnewski and the GSG-9 are refused landing in Aden and fly to Djidda.
|17 Oct. 1977||The jetliner leaves Aden and
flies to Mogidishu, Somalia.
Wischnewski and the GSG-9 fly to Mogidishu and are joined by a special squad.
Firma Agit-Druck, printers of the left-wing journal Info-BUG raided and two members are arrested.
Trial of 2JM member Rolf Pohle begins in Munich (see 27 Feb. 1975 and 21 July 1976).
|18 Oct. 1977||The jetliner in Mogidishu is
stormed and three of the four hijackers are killed, the fourth is
Jan-Carl Raspe and Andreas Baader found shot in their cells. Baader is already dead, Raspe, fatally wounded, dies shortly after. Gudrun Ensslin is found hanged to death in her cell. Irmgard Möller found seriously injured with stab wounds. Only Möller survives.
Twenty houses raided in Cologne.
A spontaneous demonstration of between five hundred and one thousand people in Athens to protest the murders of the RAF prisoners. The President of the Athens lawyers Guild releases a letter protesting the murders. The International Investigatory Commission into the Death of Ulrike Meinhof (see 9 May 1976) demands a similar commission into the new murders.
The State publicly claims the prisoners committed suicide.
|19 Oct. 1977||The DPA News Agency in Stuttgart
receives the 25th and last communication from the kidnappers, saying
that Schleyer has been executed. His body is found in the trunk of a
green Audi 100 in the
bordertown of Mülhausen, France.
Lawyers Otto Schily and Hans-Heinz Heldmann hold a press conference to denounce the State's suicide story regarding the prisoners.
|20 Oct. 1977||A Müllhausen gas-station
attendant tells the police he saw RAF members Christian Klar and
Willi Peter Stoll
in a green Audi 100 earlier in the week.
|25 Oct. 1977|| Julian Beck, the founder of the
"Living Theater", arrested and later released on bail.
Paris Court of Appeals suspends the trial regarding the extradition of Klaus Croissant until 2 Nov. 1977.
Information indicating that two members of the anti-terrorist unit of the British Special Air Services (SAS) participated in the Mogidishu action is made public.
|26 Oct. 1977||Schleyer buried.|
|27 Oct. 1977||The "left" daily Tageszeitung (TAZ) reprints an interview wth Helmut Ensslin, Gudrun Ensslin’s father (originally printed in Italian Left newspaper Lotta Continua) in which he claims he believes that the prisoners were murdered by a very small number of government officials.|
|28 Oct. 1977||Gudrun Ensslin, Jan-Carl Raspe, and Andreas Baader buried.|
|31 Oct. 1977||The.Provincial Court in Zweibrücken is bombed.|
|2 Nov. 1977|| The trial begins against Anderen Buchladen (The Other
Bookstore) for displaying copies of the
The extradition trial of Klaus Croissant recommences in Paris.
Fifteen lawyers from all over West Europe plead that he not be extradited.
|7-13 Nov. 1977||Anti-Repression Week in Mainz.|
|8 Nov. 1977||Eight members of a Kaiserlautern anti-fascist group are arrested in connection with the the bombing of the Provincial Court in Zweibrücken (see 31 Oct. 1977).|
|12 Nov. 1977||RAF prisoner Ingrid Schubert, one of eleven demanded in exchange for Schleyer, is found hanged in her cell in Munich. Her murder sparks demonstrations and armed actions all across West Europe.|
|16 Nov. 1977||The French Court of Appeals rules that Klaus Croissant should be extradited to West Germany.|
|17 Nov. 1977||Croissant turned over to West Germany.|
|19 Nov. 1977||RAF prisoner Irmgard Möller begins a hungerstrike for association with RAF prisoner Verena Becker.|
|23 Nov. 1977
||Berufsverbot laid against lawyer Spangenber, Fritz Teufel’s lawyer in the Lorenz kidnapping trial (see 27 Feb. 1975).|
|28 Nov. 1977
||Trial begins against RAF member Verona Becker. She is charged with attempted murder, robbery, and membership in a criminal association (RAF).|
|4 Dec. 1977||French philosopher and anti-prison activist Michel Foucault is threatened by police with machine pistols during a visit to Merve Verlag in West Berlin.|
|20 Dec. 1977||2JM members, Gabriele Kröcher-Tiedemann and Christian Möller arrested following a shoot-out with Swiss border guards at the Swiss border with France.|
|10 Jan. 1978||RAF member Christiane Kuby
arrested following a shoot-out.
|13 Jan. 1978||"Commando Benno Ohnesorg"(see 2 June 1967) bombs the Supreme Court in Bern, Switzerland and promises further attacks if Kröcher-Tiedemann and Möller are extradited (see 20 Dec. 1977).|
|1 Feb. 1978||RAF prisoners imprisoned in Holland begin hungerstrike, demanding an end to isolation and bans on visits, free access to literature, and ultimately to be flown to a country of their choice.|
|9 Feb. 1978||RAF prisoners in Hamburg begin a hungerstrike, demanding POW status, association, the return of confiscated writings of Ensslin, Raspe, and Baader and an independent investigation into the murders of the RAF prisoners.|
||Former defense attorney Klaus Croissant's trial begins - Croissant refuses to distance himself from his former clients, but, rather, publicly identified himself with them on the ideological plane.|
|10 March 1978||RAF prisoners in
Cologne-Ossendorf begin a hungerstrike, adding the demand for the
release of RAF prisoner Günter Sonneneberg (see 3 May 1977), and
the end to the psychological war against the RAF.
In Bern, Switzerland, 2JM prisoners Gabriele Kröcher-Tiedemann and Christian Möller (see 20 Dec. 1977) begin hungerstrike for end of isolation and psychological torture, citing the minimum guarantees of the Geneva Convention.
|April 1978||A false issue of the A-Z Kreuzberger, West Berlin advertisement newspaper, is released full of information about the 2JM to coincide with the beginning of the Lorenz/Drenkmann trial (see 10 Nov. 1974 and 27 Feb. 1975).|
|10 April 1978||2JM members Ralf Reinders, Fritz Teufel, and Ronald Fritzsch assault their State-appointod lawyers.|
|11 April 1978||The Lorenz/Drenkmann trial
begins under Judge Geus, who acquited policeman Kurras in the shooting
of Benno Ohnesorg
(see 02 June 1967).
|27 May 1978||RAF member Stefan Wisniewski,
wanted in connection with the Schleyer kidnapping (see Sept. and Oct.
1977), arrested in Paris.
Two armed women disguised as lawyers break 2JM member Till Meyer out of Moabit Prison in West Berlin. Plans to break 2JM member Andreas Vogel out at the same time are thwarted.
|29 May 1978||Police raid office of lawyer Lohstoter and arrest her in connection with the Meyer breakout. She is released shortly thereafter.|
|31 May 1978||The RZ shoot in the leg a court
appointed attorney for 2JM members and plant a bomb in the car of
another one. The bomb
fails to go off.
|21 June 1978||2JM members Till Meyer, Gabriele Rollnick, Gudrun Strumer, and Angelika Goder are captured by heavily armed West German police in Varna, Bulgaria. Bulgarian police do not intervene and the four are flown out of Bulgaria.|
|30 June 1978|| In Switzerland, 2JM members
Gabriele Kröcher-Tiedemann and Christian Möller are sentenced
to 15 and eleven
years respectively (see 20 Dec. 1977).
RAF members Brigitte Monhaupt, Sieglinde Hofmann, Peter-Jürgen Boock, and Rolf Clemens Wagner, all suspects in the Schleyer kidnapping, are arrested in Yugoslavia.
|14 July 1978||A bomb explosion causes heavy damage to the Bern, Switzerland Courthouse, next to the prison where Kröcher-Tidemann and Möller are being held.|
|15 July 1978||Two offices of the Balkan Trading Organization are bombed in retaliation for the Bulgarian cooperation in the arrests of four 2JM members on 21 June 1978. The actions are claimed by the “International Revolutionary Solidarity Movement”.|
|20 Aug. 1978||Ex-RAF member Astrid Proll
arrested by British police.
|6 Sept. 1978||RAF member Willi Peter Stoll
death by police in a Düsseldorf restaurant.
|25 Sept. 1978||RAF members Angelika Speitel and
Michail Knoll wounded and arrested in a shoot-out with the police. One
is killed and a third RAF member escapes with his submachine-gun.
|Oct. 1978||Lawyer Kurt Groenwald is
sentenced to 2 years for "supporting a criminal association" (RAF) by
serving as part of
an information network between imprisoned RAF members and guerillas on
|15 Nov. 1978||Yugoslav authorities release arrested RAF members and fly them to an undisclosed third country (see 30 June 1978).|
||International Investigatory Commission into the Death of Ulrike Meinhof releases its finding beyond a doubt that Meinhof had been brutally raped and murdered.|
||Lawyer Klaus Croissant is sentenced to two and a half years without parole and four years Berufsverbot.|
|31 March 1979||One hundred thousand demonstrate against a proposed nuclear waste storage area in Gorleben.|
||RAF member, Rolf Heissler
Andreas Baader" attempts to assassinate NATO Chief of staff, US General
Alexander Haig and issue a communiqué.
|24 Dec. 1979||Rudi Dutschke dies as a result of complications sustained when he was shot in the head on 11 April 1968.|
|4 March 1980||America House in Hamburg occupied by supporters of the political prisoners, demanding association in large groups for the prisoners and integration into normal prison conditions for RAF prisoner Brigitte Asdonsk, now in prison for 10 years.|
|3 May 1980||Five thousand occupy the nuclear waste storage facility in Gorleben and declare the Free Republic of Wendland.|
|6 May 1980||2JM member Ingrid Barabas, RAF
member Sieglinde Hoffman,and supporters Karin Kamp-Munruchow and.Regine
Nicolai arrested in Paris.
Militant demonstration in Breman against the swearing-in exercise for young soldiers.
|2 June 1980||2JM releases a communiqué announcing their dissolution and merger with the RAF.|
|26 July 1980||RAF members Juliane Plambeck (ex-2JM) and Wolfgang Beer killed in a car crash.|
|9 Sept. 1980||West Berlin Housing Board announces that there are 225 apartments being squatted in the city.|
|12 Dec. 1980||A squatters’ demonstration in West Berlin evolves into a major riot.|
|1 Feb. 1981||Dieter Faber arrested in
Kaiselautern and charged with “supporting a criminal association” (RAF).
|6 Feb. 1981||RAF prisoners begin
hungerstrike demanding association
release of Günter Sonnenberg (see 3
|13 March 1981||First national squatters'
congress in Münster.
|10 April 1981||Karl Grosser arrested in Heidelberg and charged with "supporting a criminal association" (RAF).|
|12 May 1981||162 new houses occupied by squatters in West Berlin.|
|26 May 1981||A day of street-fighting follows police raids against squats in West Berlin.|
|3 June 1981||Barbara Augustin arrested with a car-load of explosives at the Swiss border in Rheinau.|
|31 Aug. 1981||RAF "Commando Sigurd
the Headquarters of the U.S. Airforce in Ramstein, and issue a communiqué.
|3 Sept. 1981||Sixty thousand demonstrate against the visit of U.S. Secretary of State Alexander Haig to WestBerlin.|
|15 Sept. 1981||RAF "Commando Gudrun Ensslin"
attacks and narrowly misses killing the head of the U.S. Army in
Europe, General Frederick
Kroesen. A communiqué is released
this assassination attempt.
|21 Sept. 1981||The trial of RAF member
Sieglinde Hoffman, charged in connecttion with the execution of
Jürgen Ponto (see 30 July 1977).
|10 Oct. 1981|| In the largest demonstration in
West German history, two hundred and sixty five thousand march in
anti-war demonstration in Bonn.
|16 Oct. 1981||Helga Roos is arrested for
"supporting a criminal association" (RAF), in connection with the
attack on Kroesen (see 15 Sept. 1981).
|7 March 1982||Rote Zora firebombs Schering for its role in sterilization programmes in the Third World.|
|May 1982||The RAF releases a major theoretical text, re-evaluating their praxis and opening a new phase in their discussion with the legal movement. This paper, The Guerilla, The Resistance and the Anti-Imperialist Front, calls for a broad-based front involving the guerilla, the semi-legal movement, and the legal anti-imperialist movement, becomes known as the "May Paper".|
|11 June 1982||A massive demonstration in Bonn against the NATO Summit and President Reagan's visit to West Berlin. A split develops around strategy and tactics, between the "mainstream" Left and the anti-imperialists and autonomists.|
|31 Oct. 1982||2JM prisoner Klaus Viehmann
begins a hunger- and thirst-strike to protest prison conditions.
|16 Nov. 1982||RAF members Adelheid Schulz and Christian Klar arrested and charged in connection with all RAF actions from 1977 until 1981.|
|14 Dec. 1982||The neo-nazi Hexel-Hepp Group bombs the U.S. army base in Hesse. Two GIs are seriously injured. Many people on the Left originally applaud the action, believing it was carried out by the RZ. Both the RZ and RAF prisoner, Christian Klar, issues statements pointing out operational indicators that the action came from the Right and criticize the superficiality of the Left’s analysis of the action and confusions between anti-americanism and anti-imperialism.|
|Feb. 1983||Rote Zora attacks "Muller’s" porn shop during carnival.|
|1 March 1983||RAF member Gisela Dutzi arrested in Darmstadt.|
|8 March 1983||Rote Zora firebombs the car of a woman-trader in Cologne and firebombs the Philipino Consulate in Bonn.|
|10 April 1983||Inge Krobs arrested in Frankfurt and charged with “supporting a criminal association” (RAF).|
|3 July 1983||RAF members Helmut Pohl, Ingrid Jakobsmeir, Barbara Ernst, Volker Staub, Stefan Frey, and Christa Eckes arrested in Frankfurt, after they accidentally discharge a gun in a house.|
|9 July 1983||Heidi Hutt arrested and charged with "supporting a criminal association" (RAF), in connection with the group arrested on 3 July 1984.|
|18 Nov. 1983||RAF prisoner Roland Mayer begins a hungerstrike in Bruschsal for free access to information and visits.|
|16 Dec. 1983||Four people involved in the
movement against the NATO runway Startbahn
West, arrested in
Frankfurt and charged with for forming a "criminal (terrorist)
|18 Dec. 1984||RAF "Commando Jan-Carl Raspe"
attempts to bomb the SHAPE School, the NATO Officers’ School in
Oberammergua. The bomb
is discovered and defused.
|Dec. 1984||RAF prisoners begin
hungerstrike, demanding association. Two statements are released, a
shorter Hungerstrike Statement and
a longer one Regarding the Association
of Political Prisoners aimed towards the movement.
||RAF issue a joint
statement along with the French anti-imperialist guerilla organization
Action Directe, For the Unity of
Revolutionaries in West Europe.
|20 Jan. 1985||Johannes Thimme killed and Claudia Wannersdorfer seriously injured trying to bomb the "Association for the Development of Air and Space Industries" in Stuttgart.|
|1 Feb. 1985||RAF “Commando Patsy
O’Hara”assassinates arms manufacturer Ernst Zimmerman, issuing a communiqué at the same
||RAF prisoners call
off their hungerstrike, issuing a statement to this effect.
|15 March 1985||A Youth Center and six homes are raided in Hannover, allegedly in connection with a RAF support network.|
||A first Interview with Comrades from the RAF
|13 April 1985||Rote Zora bombs a genetic technology research center in the Industrial Park in Heidelberg.|
|1 May 1985||Fifteen people arrested and charged with "supporting a criminal association", for carrying a banner with a painting of RAF member Ulrike Meinhof (see 9 May 1976) and the slogan "freedom for political prisoners".|
|18 May 1985||Two cops visit Paul Moussault,
publisher of the Dutch newspaper De
knipselkrant, and question him
the RAF prisoners' hungerstrike (see Dec. 1984) and the hundreds of
it inspired in West Germany, as well as the Cellules
Combatantes (CCC), a Belgian communist guerilla group.
|3 July 1985||Ingrid Barabas (former 2JM) (see
May 1980) and Mareille Schmegner arrested and charged as RAF
|8 Aug. 1985||RAF "Commando George
Jackson" bombs the
Airforce Base in Frankfurt, releasing
a first communiqué regarding this action.
|18 Aug. 1985||Rote Zora bombs the Max Plant Institute inconnection with its role in the genetic manipulation of plants in the Third World.|
|25 Aug. 1985|| In a communiqué # 2 Regarding the
Against the Rhein-Main Air Base and the Shooting of Edward Pimental,
RAF claims responsibility for the killing of U.S. GI Edward Pimental, whose ID card they used to gain access to the Air Base for the 8 August 1985 action.
|Sept. 1985||RAF releases an interview in which they explain the Air Base action and the killing of Pimental, which has been the source of much criticism and controversy.|
|28 Sept. 1985||Anti-nazi activist Günter Sare killed when he is knocked down and run over by a water cannon during a demonstration against a meeting of the neo-nazi NPD party in Frankfurt. This sparks weeks of actions and riots throughout West Germany.|
||The left daily, the TAZ, interviews Christian Lochte, the head of the Hamburg Verfassungsschutz (intelligence gathering police service).|
|14 Oct. 1985||TAZ informs the Hamburg Hafenstrasse squat about the interview and allows them to read it in whole, but won’t let them copy it.|
|16 Oct. 1985||TAZ prints an abbreviated version of the interview with Lochte.|
|29 Oct. 1985||Members of the Hafenstrasse squat smash the TAZ office, seriously damaging the premises and equipment. They claim that it is in retaliation for TAZ cooperation with Lochte and the Verfassangsschutz.|
|20 Nov. 1985||Trial begins against Irene Klar,
the first relative of a political prisoner ever charged with
"supporting a criminal association" (RAF).
|Jan. 1986||RAF releases An Die, Die Mit Uns Kämpfen (“To Those Who Struggle With Us”), a final assessment of the 8 August 1985 Air Base action and the killing of Pimental, and a response to all of the criticisms it raised.|
|13 Jan. 1986||RAF member Annelie Backer arrested in Hannover. Angela Senftleber and Heidi Hutt arrested in Frankfurt and charged with "supporting a criminal association". As well there are a series of raids in Frankfurt.|
|31 Jan. – 2 Feb. 1986||"Anti-Capitalist and Anti-Imperialist Conference" in Frankfurt draws thousands from all over West Europe and around the world.|
|March 1986||All over West Germany there are actions against the Reinhard Hauff film, Stammheim, based on the Stefan Aust book, Der Baader-Meinhof Komplex. Both are seen as counter-insurgency pieces.|
|24 April 1986||Autonomen Zellen (AZ) firebomb the NATO pipeline.|
|9 July 1986||RAF "Commando Mara
assassinate Karl Heinz Beckurts, the President of Siemens and a key
figure in SDI production (Star Wars), releasing
a communiqué at the same time.
|August 1986||Letters are sent to about fifty
people in Holland, encouraging them to betray Paul Moussant’s
connections to the RAF (see 18 May 1985).
|2 Aug. 1986||RAF member Eva Haule-Frimpong and supporters Luitigard Hornstein and Christian Kluth are arrested in Rüsselheim.|
|5 Aug. 1986||Rote Zora bombs the Humangenetischer Institute (Human Genetics Institute) and announces the beginning of a campaign against gene technology.|
|13-14 Aug. 1986||Three arrests in Duisburg in connection with armed actions of the growing semi-legal anti-imperialist movement.|
|2 Sept. 1986||Paul Mossault arrested and questioned by cops (see 18 May 1985 and August 1986).|
|10 Oct. 1986
||RAF “Commando Ingrid Schubert” assassinates diplomat Gerold von Braunmöhl, releasing a communiqué explaining his role in imperialist strategy, particalarly regarding the Middle East.|
|29 Oct. 1986||The Kiefernstrasse squat in Düsseldorf, former home of Luitigard Hornstein and Christian Kluth (see 2 Aug. 1986) is raided in connection with RAF activities.|
|Dec. 1986 / Jan. 1987||RZ campaign against companies with business ties to South Africa.|
|Dec. 1986 / Jan. 1987||RZ campaign against companies with business ties to South Africa.|
|15 Feb. 1987||AZ sabotages U.S. Army trains in Achim.|
|16 March 1987||RAF prisoner Rolf Clemens Wagner sentenced to life in connecttion with the Schleyer execution (see Sept.-Oct. 1977).|
|9 April 1987
||Office and home of Paul Moussault raided (see 18 May 1985, Aug. 1986, 2 Sept. 1986).|
|June 1987||Interview the AZ released.|
|17 Aug. 1987||Rote Zora firebombs nine branches of the Adler Department Store in support of women striking in Adler’s Korean factories. Adler subsequently settles with the Korean women, admitting the firebombings had a role in their decision.|
|2 Nov. 1987||Two cops shot and killed at a demonstration against the NATO runway in Frankfurt, Startbahn West.|
|3 Nov. 1987||Andreas Eichler arrested and
charged with the murder of the cops at the Startbahn West
demonstration. He claims innocence.
|11 Nov. 1987
||Frank Hoffmann accused in connection with the Startbahn West shooting, disappears into the underground.|
|11 Nov. 1987
||TAZ reports receiving a letter from Frank Hoffman. He claims he is innocent, but knows that he could not get a fair trial.|
|21 Nov. 1987||Residents of the Kiefernstrasse
squat in Düsseldorf, Andrea Sievering and Eric Prauss are arrested
and charged with "supporting a criminal association" (RAF). Their case
is joined with that of Luitigard Hornstein and Christian Kluth. All
four are charged with a car-bombing against Dormier.
Thirty three homes and offices raided in connection with Rote Zora. Ulla Penselin is charged with membership in the Rote Zora.
|20 Dec. 1987||Ingrid Strobl arrested and charged with membership in the RZ and Rote Zora. She is a journalist with the feminist journal Emma.|
|Jan. 1988||Andreas Semisch, one of five
people by now arrested
in connection with the Startbahn West shooting (see 2 Nov. 1987),
releases a letter proclaiming his innocence, his solidarity with all
other political prisoners, particularly the prisoners from the 18 &
20 Dec. 1987 arrests, and his solidarity with hungerstriking Action Directe prisoners in France.
||RAF release a joint statement along with Italy's Red
||RAF "Commando Khaled
Aker" attempt to assassinate Secretary of State for the Minister of
Finance, Hans Tietmeyer, but their automatic pistol jams. A communiqué is released.